Tuesday, August 22, 2006

Vedic Wisdom

“sanksipya caturo vedams caturdha vyabhajat prabhuh vyasta-vedataya khyato veda-vyasa iti smrtah”
“The prabhu (master, lord, guru) who is most intelligent then divided the Vedas into four. He therefore became known as Veda Vyasa.”

He codified the Veda, the compilation of which was initiated by Maharshi Angiras two millennia back, into four divisions ( 1131 Sakhas or Recensions divided into Rik (21 sakhas), Yajur(101=85+16 sakhas), Sama (1000 sakhas) and Atharva Veda (9 sakhas). For further re-organization and editing he entrusted the Books to his trusted disciples:

Rig Veda - Paila
Yajur Veda - Vaisampayana
Sama Veda - Jaimini
Atharva Veda - Sumantu

21(Rig)+101(yazur)+1000(Sama)+9(Atharv)=1131 Vedic branches had 1131 Samhitas, 1131 Brahmanas, 1131 Arynaks and 1131 Upanishads. These 1131x4 = 4524 scriptures together came to be known as Vedic wisdom.

But only the following parts are available now.

Rigveda (21)

Samhitas : Sakala, Bashkala
Brahmanas : Aitareya, Kaushitaka
Aranyakas : Aitareya, Kaushitaka
Upanishads : AitareyaKrishna

YajurVeda (85)

Samhitas : Taittiriya, Maitrayaniya, Katha, Kapisthala
Brahmanas : Taittiriya
Aranyakas : Taittiriya
Upanishads : Taittiriya

Shukla YajurVeda (16)
Samhitas : Madhyandina, Kanva
Brahmanas : Satapatha
Aranyakas : Brihadaranyaka
Upanishads : Brihadaranyaka, Isa
SamaVeda (1000)
Samhitas : Kauthuma, Jaiminiya, Ranayaniya
Brahmanas : Tandya, Chandogya, Talavakara (part)/ Jaiminiya
Aranyakas : Jaiminiya
Upanishads : Kena, Chandogya
AtharvanaVeda (9)
Samhitas : Saunakiya, Paippalada (part)
Brahmanas : Gopatha (part)
Aranyakas : ...
Upanishads : Prasna, Mundaka, Mandukya

Yaksha - Yudhisthira Samvada

Mahabharata - Aranyaka Parva Adhyaya - Araneya Parva

Click here for SANSKRIT version of this story in Devanagari Script.

This episode is found in the Aranya Parva of the epic, the Mahabharata. The sons of Pandu along with their wife Draupadi are nearing the end of their twelve-year exile in forests. They are due to begin the thirteenth and final year, which they are required to spend undiscovered.

In ancient days, it was the practice of certain brahmins to do homas and havanas as a part of their daily rituals and worship. One of the most essential tools needed in this practice is, of course, the device that can generate fire. This consists of two wooden pieces, a rod and a bow, the latter producing a churning action of the rod supported on a firm base of stone or wood. The churning action results in friction and heat at the support and any fibrous material at the base of the support catches fire, ready for use in a ritual.

One day one such brahmin, an agnihotri, came rushing to the Pandavas and begged for help. He had, it seems, hung the fire-drilling sticks in a tree. A passing stag happened to stop and rub his body on the trunk of this tree and, in the process, the sticks got entangled in the articulated horns of the animal. The stag fled, struggling in vain to rid himself of this unwanted burden; and the more he shook his head, the more firmly did the fire-sticks get wedged in his antlers. The poor brahmin now wanted the Pandavas to pursue the fleeing animal and recover the sticks.

The Pandavas believed that it was the duty of kshatriyas to provide any and all help and protection to those who practiced their dharma. Therefore they proceeded forthwith fully armed in pursuit of the stag. While they soon caught sight of the stag, their attempts to stop the animal failed and more running and more huffmg and puffing ended in the tiring of the party. Not only had the quest failed, they ended up hungry, thirsty, tired, angry and frustrated.

The brothers sat down finally to rest under the cool shade of a large tree and naturally began to fret over the outcome of this relatively simple, uncomplicated task. Greater battles with their cousins lay ahead of them and yet they had not been able to help a brahmin even in such simple circumstances. Yudhishthira instructed Nakula to climb a tree nearby to locate any sources of water in the vicinity so that they could quench their thirst. Nakula did so and informed Yudhishthira that there was indeed a cluster of trees not too far off and that he could hear the cries of water cranes. Yudhishthira suggested that Nakula go to the pond and fetch some
water in a quiver.

Nakula, after walking a short distance, located a beautiful spot, a crystal clear lake, surrounded by trees, flowers and birds. Nakula was overjoyed. His first instinct was to enjoy a cool drink himself, as long as he was already there. So he descended to the waters edge and prepared to scoop up some refreshing water. As he was about to do so he heard a strong and clear voice of warning:

"Ma tata sahasam karshirmama purva parigrahah prashnanuktva tu madreya pibasva ca harasva ca"

"Do not dare to touch that water, my dear child. You must first answer my questions. . ."

Nakula thought that he must be hearing things due to sheer fatigue and so he ignored the warning, drank the water and immediately fell dead.

When Nakula did not return within a reasonable time, Yudhishthira suggested that Sahadeva go and take a look at what was delaying him. Sahadeva arrived on the scene and was shocked to see Nakula lying as though asleep. Before doing anything, he thought he could quench his thirst. He heard the same warning, ignored it and, upon attempting to drink, also fell dead.

Now it was Arjuna's turn to determine what had happened. He proceeded with his Gandiva bow in his hand, suspecting some trouble. Upon arriving at the lake he was stunned to see his brothers lying as though dead. Again, he tried to quench his thirst and heard the same warning. But Arjuna did not ignore the warning. Instead he challenged the being to show himself and shot several arrows in the direction from which the voice came. He only received further and more stern warning. Arjuna challenged the voice by saying, "Stop me if you can," proceeded to drink the water and fell down dead. Some short time later, Bhima arrived and had the same fate.

Now Yudhishthira was clearly worried. Wondering about the possibilities of harm befalling his dear and powerful brothers, he decided to go in search of them. When he arrived at the lake, he could not believe the dreadful sight before him. All four brothers dead on the ground! Yudhishthira sat beside them and lamented. All his hopes were shattered now. How would he ever be able to recover his lost kingdom without the help of his able, powerful brothers? He grieved for a while and then began to look around to determine the reason for these deaths. He said to himself,

"Naisham shastra praharos ti padam nehasti kasyacit bhutam mahadidam manye
bhrataro yena me hatah"

(There are no signs of violence on their bodies, no foot-prints anywhere. The
killer must be a supernatural being.)

He wondered if Duryodhana had had the pool poisoned. He ruled it out because the faces of the dead brothers looked calm and serene. Convincing himself that it must have been some supernatural being, he approached the water's edge to fetch some water to begin the last rites for his brothers. Then he heard a sudden voice: "Tavanujah maya preta vasham nita. . . (I am the cause of your brothers' death), Na chet prashnan prcchato vyakaroshi tvam pancamo bhavita. . . . (You shall be the fifth victim if you do not answer my questions. . . .)"

Yudhishthira asked, "Who are you? Are you a rudra, vasu, or marut? You must be strong to be able to put to death these powerful brothers of mine. Your feat is remarkable because neither gods, antigods, gandharvas nor rakshasas could stand up to my brothers. But why? What do you want? Noble one! Why are you here? Who are you?"

The voice replied: "I am a Yaksha, Yudhishthira. May you prosper." As he heard these words, Yudhishthira saw before his eyes a form developing. A massive tall body with grotesque eyes, burning like the fire of the sun, and a voice like thunder: "I warned your brothers. But they would not listen to me. So now they are dead. This pool belongs to me and unless you answer my questions you shall not even touch this water."

Yudhishthira replied, "Na caham karnaye yaksha tava purva parigraham (I have no desire to take what is yours), "Yatha prajnam tu te prashnan prati vakshyami prccha mam (Ask me and I will answer as best as I can)."

The Yaksha then said, What is it that makes the Sun rise? Who keeps him company? Who causes him to set? And in whom is he established?

Yudhishthira answered, Brahma makes the Sun rise: the gods keep him company: Dharma causes him to set: and he is established in truth.

The Yaksha asked, By what does one become learned? By what does he attain what is very great? How can one have a second? And, O king, how can one acquire ntelligence?

Yudhishthira answered, It is by the Srutis that a person becomes learned; it is by ascetic austerities that one acquires what is very great: it is by intelligence that a person acquires a second and it is by serving the old that one becomes wise.

The Yaksha asked, What constitutes the divinity of the Brahmanas? What even is
their practice that is like that of the pious? What also is the human attribute of the Brahmanas? And what practice of theirs is like that of the impious?

Yudhishthira answered, The study of the Vedas constitutes their divinity: their asceticism constitutes behaviour that is like that of the pious; their liability to death is their human attribute and slander is their impiety.

The Yaksha asked, What institutes the divinity of the Kshatriyas? What even is their practice that is like that of the pious? What is their human attribute? And
what practice of theirs is like that of the impious?

Yudhishthira answered, Arrows and weapons are their divinity: celebration of sacrifices is that act which is like that of the pious: liability to fear is their
human attribute; and refusal of protection is that act of theirs which is like that of the impious.

The Yaksha asked, What is that which constitutes the Sama of the sacrifice? What the Yajus of the sacrifice? What is that which is the refuge of a sacrifice? And what is that which sacrifice cannot do without?

Yudhishthira answered, Life is the Sama of the sacrifice; the mind is the Yajus of the sacrifice: the Rik is that which is the refuge of
the sacrifice; and it is Rik alone which sacrifice cannot do without.

The Yaksha asked, What is of the foremost value to those that cultivate? What is of the foremost value to those that sow? What is of the foremost value to those that wish for prosperity in this world? And what is of the foremost value to those
that bring forth?

Yudhishthira answered, That which is of the foremost value to those that cultivate is rain: that of the foremost value to those that sow is seed: that of the foremost value to those that bring forth is offspring.

The Yaksha asked, What person, enjoying all the objects of the senses, endued with intelligence, regarded by the world and liked by all beings, though breathing,
is not yet alive?

Yudhishthira answered, The person, who does not offer anything to these five, viz., gods, guests, servants, Pitris, and himself, though endued with breath, is not yet alive.

The Yaksha asked, What is weightier than the earth itself? What is higher than the heavens?' What is fleeter than the wind? And what is more numerous than grass?

Yudhishthira answered, The mother is weightier than the earth; the father is higher than the heaven; the mind is fleeter than the wind; and our thoughts are
more numerous than grass.

The Yaksha asked, What is that which does not close its eyes while asleep; What is that which does not move after birth? What is that which is without heart? And what is that which swells with its own impetus?

Yudhishthira answered, A fish does not close its eyes while asleep: an egg does not move after birth: a stone is without heart: and a river swells with its own impetus.

The Yaksha asked, Who is the friend of the exile? Who is the friend of the householder? Who is the friend of him that ails? And who is the friend of one about to die?

Yudhishthira answered, The friend of the exile in a distant land is his companion, the friend of the householder is the wife; the friend of him that ails is the physician: and the friend of him about to die is charity.

The Yaksha asked, Who is the guest of all creatures? What is the eternal duty? What, O foremost of kings, is Amrita? And what is this entire Universe?

Yudhishthira answered, Agni is the guest of all creatures: the milk of cows is amrita: Homa is the eternal duty: and this Universe consists of air alone.

The Yaksha asked, What is that which sojourns alone? What is that which is re-born after its birth? What is the remedy against cold? And what is the largest field?

Yudhishthira answered, The sun sojourns alone; the moon takes birth anew: fire is the remedy against cold: and the Earth is the largest field.

The Yaksha asked, What is the highest refuge of virtue? What of fame? What of heaven? And what, of happiness?

Yudhishthira answered, Liberality is the highest refuge of virtue: gift, of fame:
truth, of heaven: and good behaviour, of happiness.

The Yaksha asked, What is the soul of man? Who is that friend bestowed on man by the gods? What is man's chief support? And what also is his chief refuge?

Yudhishthira answered, The son is a man's soul: the wife is the friend bestowed on man by the gods; the clouds are his chief support; and gift is his chief refuge.

The Yaksha asked, What is the best of all laudable things? What is the most valuable of all his possessions? What is the best of all gains? And what is the best of all kinds of happiness?

Yudhishthira answered, The best of all laudable things is skill; the best of all possessions is knowledge: the best of all gains is health: and contentment is the best of all kinds of happiness.

The Yaksha asked, What is the highest duty in the world? What is that virtue which always bears fruit? What is that which if controlled, leads not to regret? And who are they with whom an alliance cannot break?

Yudhishthira answered, The highest of duties is to refrain from injury: the rites ordained in the Three (Vedas) always bear fruit: the mind, if controlled, leads to no regret: and an alliance with the good never breaks.

The Yaksha asked, What is that which, if renounced, makes one agreeable? What is that which, if renounced, leads to no regret? What is that which, if renounced, makes one wealthy? And what is that which if renounced, makes one happy?

Yudhishthira answered, Pride, if renounced, makes one agreeable; wrath, if nounced
leads to no regret: desire, if renounced, makes one wealthy: and avarice, if renounced, makes one happy.

The Yaksha asked, For what does one give away to Brahmanas? For what to mimes and dancers? For what to servants? And for what to king?

Yudhishthira answered, It is for religious merit that one gives away to Brahmanas: it is for fame that one gives away to mimes and dancers: it is for supporting them that one gives away to servants: and it is for obtaining relief from fear that one gives to kings.

The Yaksha asked, With what is the world enveloped? What is that owing to which a thing cannot discover itself? For what are friends forsaken? And for what does one fail to go to heaven?

Yudhishthira answered, The world is enveloped with darkness. Darkness does not permit a thing to show itself. It is from avarice that friends are forsaken. And it is connection with the world for which one fails to go to heaven.

The Yaksha asked, For what may one be considered as dead? For what may a kingdom be considered as dead? For what may a Sraddha be considered as dead? And for what, a sacrifice?

Yudhishthira answered, For want of wealth may a man be regarded as dead. A kingdom for want of a king may be regarded as dead. A Sraddha that is performed with the aid of a priest that has no learning may be regarded as dead. And a sacrifice
in which there are no gifts to Brahmanas is dead.

The Yaksha asked,--'What constitutes the way? What, has been spoken of as water? that, as food? And what, as poison? Tell us also what is the proper time of a Sraddha, and then drink and take away as much as you liked!

Yudhishthira answered, They that are good constitute the way. Space has been spoken of as water. The cow is food. A request is poison. And a Brahmana is regarded as the proper time of a Sraddha. I do not know what you may think of all
this, O Yaksha?

The Yaksha asked, What has been said to be the sign of asceticism? And what is true restraint? What constitutes forgiveness. And what is shame?

Yudhishthira answered, Staying in one's own religion is asceticism: the restraint of the mind is of all restraints the true one: forgiveness consists in enduring enmity; and shame, in withdrawing from all unworthy acts.

The Yaksha asked, What, O king is said to be knowledge? What, tranquility? What constitutes mercy? And what has been called simplicity?

Yudhishthira answered, True knowledge is that of Divinity. True tranquility is that of the heart. Mercy consists in wishing happiness to all. And simplicity is equanimity of heart.

The Yaksha asked, What enemy is invincible? What constitutes an incurable disease for man? What sort of a man is called honest and what dishonest?

Yudhishthira answered, Anger is an invincible enemy. Covetousness constitutes an incurable disease. He is honest that desires the weal of all creatures, and he is dishonest who is unmerciful.

The Yaksha asked, What, O king, is ignorance? And what is pride? What also is to be understood by idleness? And what has been spoken of as grief?

Yudhishthira answered, True ignorance consists in not knowing one's duties. Pride is a consciousness of one's being himself an actor or sufferer in life. Idleness consists in not discharging one's duties, and ignorance in grief.

The Yaksha asked, What has steadiness been said by the Rishis to be? And what, patience? What also is a real ablution? And what is charity?

Yudhishthira answered, Steadiness consists in one's staying in one's own religion, and true patience consists in the subjugation of the senses. A true bath consists in washing the mind clean of all impurities, and charity consists in protecting all creatures.

The Yaksha asked, What man should be regarded as learned, and who should be called an atheist? Who also is to be called ignorant? What is called desire and what are the sources of desire? And what is envy?

Yudhishthira answered, He is to be called learned who knows his duties. An atheist is he who is ignorant and so also he is ignorant who is an atheist. Desire is due to objects of possession, and envy is nothing else than grief of heart.

The Yaksha asked, What is pride, and what is hypocrisy? What is the grace of the gods, and what is wickedness?

Yudhishthira answered, Stolid ignorance is pride. The setting up of a religious standard is hypocrisy. The grace of the gods is the fruit of our gifts, and wickedness consists in speaking ill of others.

The Yaksha asked, Virtue, profit, and desire are opposed to one another. How could things thus antagonistic to one another exist together?

Yudhishthira answered, When a wife and virtue agree with each other, then all the three you have mentioned may exist together.

The Yaksha asked, Who is he that is condemned to everlasting hell? It behooves you to soon answer the question that I ask!

Yudhishthira answered, He that summons a poor Brahmana promising to make him a gift and then tells him that he has nothing to give, goes to everlasting hell. He also must go to everlasting hell, who imputes falsehood to the Vedas, the scriptures, the Brahmanas, the gods, and the ceremonies in honour of the Pitris, He also goes to everlasting hell who though in possession of wealth, never gives away nor enjoys himself from avarice, saying, he has none.

The Yaksha asked, By what, O king, birth, behaviour, study, or learning does a person become a Brahmana? Tell us with certitude!

Yudhishthira answered, Listen, O Yaksha! It is neither birth, nor study, nor learning, that is the cause of Brahmanahood, without doubt, it is behaviour that constitutes it. One's behaviour should always be well-guarded, especially by a Brahmana. He who maintains his conduct unimpaired, is never impaired himself. Professors and pupils, in fact, all who study the scriptures, if addicted to wicked habits, are to be regarded as illiterate wretches. He only is learned who performs his religious duties. He even that has studied the four Vedas is to be regarded as a wicked wretch scarcely distinguishable from a Sudra (if his conduct be not correct). He only who performs the Agnihotra and has his senses under control, is called a Brahmana!

The Yaksha asked, What does one gain that speaks agreeable words? What does he gain that always acts with judgment? What does he gain that has many friends? And what he, that is devoted to virtue?

Yudhishthira answered, He that speaks agreeable words becomes agreeable to all. He that acts with judgment obtains whatever he seeks. He that has many friends lives happily. And he that is devoted to virtue obtains a happy state (in the next world).

The Yaksha asked, Who is truly happy? What is most wonderful? What is the path? And what is the news? Answer these four questions of mine and let your dead brothers revive.

Yudhishthira answered, O amphibious creature, a man who cooks in his own house, on the fifth or the sixth part of the day, with scanty vegetables, but who is not in debt and who stirs not from home, is truly happy. Day after day countless creatures are going to the abode of Yama, yet those that remain behind believe themselves to be immortal. What can be more wonderful than this? Argument leads to no certain conclusion, the Srutis are different from one another; there is not even one Rishi whose opinion can be accepted by all; the truth about religion and duty is hid in caves: therefore, that alone is the path along which the great have trod. This world full of ignorance is like a pan. The sun is fire, the days and nights are fuel. The months and the seasons constitute the wooden ladle. Time is the cook that is cooking all creatures in that pan (with such aids); this is the news.

The Yaksha asked, You have, O repressor of foes, truly answered all my questions! Tell us now who is truly a man, and what man truly possesses every kind of wealth.

Yudhishthira answered, The report of one's good action reaches heaven and spreads over the earth. As long as that report lasts, so long is a person to whom the agreeable and the disagreeable, weal and woe, the past and the future, are the same, is said to possess every kind of wealth.

The Yaksha said, You have, O king truly answered who is a man, and what man possesses every kind of wealth. Therefore, let one only among your brothers, whom you may wish, get up with life!

Yudhishthira answered, Let this one that is of darkish hue, whose eyes are red, who is tall like a large Sala tree, whose chest is broad and arms long, let this Nakula, O Yaksha, get up with life!

The Yaksha rejoined, This Bhimasena is dear unto you, and this Arjuna also is one upon whom all of you depend! Why, then, O king do you, wish a step-brother to get up with his life! How can you, forsaking Bhima whose strength is equal to that of ten thousand elephants, wish Nakula to live? People said that this Bhima was dear to you. From what motive then do you wish a step-brother to revive? Forsaking Arjuna the might of whose arm is worshipped by all the sons of Pandu, why do you wish Nakula to revive?

Yudhishthira said, If virtue is sacrificed, he that sacrifices it, is himself lost. So virtue also cherishes the cherisher. Therefore taking care that virtue by being sacrificed may not sacrifice us, I never forsake virtue. Abstention from injury is the highest virtue, and is, I ween, even higher than the highest object of attainment. I endeavour to practise that virtue. Therefore, let Nakula, O Yaksha, revive! Let men know that the king is always virtuous! I will never depart from my duty. Let Nakula, therefore, revive! My father had two wives, Kunti and Madri. Let both of them have children. This is what I wish. As Kunti is to me, so also is Madri. There is no difference between them in my eye. I desire to act equally towards my mothers. Therefore, let Nakula live?

The Yaksha said, Since abstention from injury is regarded by you as higher than both profit and pleasure, therefore, let all your brothers live..!

Maheswara Sutras

nR^ttAvasAne naTarAjarAjaH nanAda DakkAm navapanchavAram
uddhartu kAmassanakAdi siddhAn etadvimarSe SivasUtrajAlam

nR^tta = dance
avasAna = end
naTarAja rAjaH = Lord of dance
nanAda = sounded
DakkAm = damaru
nava pancha = nine and five = fourteen
vAram = times
kAma = for the sake of / with the desire to
uddhartu = upliftment
sanakAdi = sanaka etc
siddhAn = sages
etat = this
jAlam = web (of)
shiva sUtra = sUtras of Lord Shiva
vimarshe = (I) examine

At the end of the cosmic dance Lord Shiva the Lord of dance, sounded his damaru fourteen times. For the sake of the upliftment of sages like sanaka. I wish to examine this web of Siva sUtras.

The name Shiva or Maheshvara sutras coms from the tradition that Panini heard them from the sounds of Shiva Bhagavans' damaru (drum.) The 14 sutras are (in ITRANS format):

  1. aiuN
  2. R^iL^ik
  3. eo~N
  4. aiauch
  5. hayavaraT
  6. laN
  7. ~nama~NaNanam
  8. jhabha~n
  9. ghaDhadhaSh
  10. jabagaDadash
  11. khaphaChaThathachaTatav
  12. kapay
  13. shaShasar
  14. hal
Sounds like gibberish right? Actually they are a clever rearrangement of the alphabet. The letter at the end of each sutra is called an it. A letter followed by an it specifies all the letters in between. For instance, aN represents a, i, and u. ak represents a, i, u, R^i, and L^i. This enables grammatical rules to be specified in a concise, algebraic form.

Heres an example. In Sanskrit words can merge together in a process called sandhi. E.g. devi + uvAcha = devyuvAcha ("Devi said.") In the western method of learning Sanskrit, you just have to memorize a table of the different letter combinations. Panini simply says:

iko yaN achi

"ik is replaced by yaN when ach follows"

In other words, ik (i, u, R^i, L^i) is replaced by yaN (ya, va, ra, la) if a vowel (ach or a, i, u, L^i, R^i, e, o, ai, au) follows

Vedic Numerical Code

In Sanskrit, the following Vedic Numerical code was used in many slokas.

"Kaadi nava
Taadi nava
Paadi panchaka
Kshah sunyam"
कादिनव टादिनव पादिपञ्चक यद्यश्टक क्ष:शुन्यम्
  • Kaadi Nava Starting from ka, the sequence of 9 letters represent 1,2,..9.
  • Similarly Taadi Nava , starting from ta,
  • Paadi panchaka (1-5), starting from pa,
  • Yadyashtaka(1-8) starting from ya.
  • And ksha represents 0.
In detail,

  • ka(क)-1, kha(ख)-2, ga(ग)-3, gha(घ)-4, gna(ङ)-5, cha(च)-6, cha(छ)-7, ja(ज)-8, jha(झ)-9.
  • ta(ट)-1, tha(ठ)-2, da(ड)-3, dha(ढ)-4, ~na(ण)-5, Ta(त)-6, Tha(थ)-7, Da(द)-8, Dha(ध)-9.
  • pa(प)-1, pha(फ)-2, ba(ब)-3, bha(भ)-4, ma(म)-5.
  • ya(य)-1, ra(र)-2, la(ल)-3, va(व)-4, Sa(श)-5, sha(ष)-6, sa (स)-7, ha(ह)-8.
  • kshah(क्ष)-0.
Based on this code there are many slokas in mathematics.
e.g., For PI value, a sloka is as folows..
गोपीभाग्य मधुव्रातः श्रुंगशोदधि संधिगः
खलजीवितखाताव गलहाला रसंधरः
gopeebhaagya maDhuvraathaH shruMgashodhaDhi saMDhigaH
khalajeevithakhaathaava galahaalaa rasaMDharaH

ga-3, pa-1, bha-4, ya -1, ma-5, Dhu-9, ra-2, tha-6, shru-5, ga-3, sho-5, dha-8, Dhi -9, sa-7, Dha- 9, ga-3, kha-2, la-3, jee-8, vi-4, tha-6, kha-2, tha-6, va-4, ga-3, la-3, ha-8, la-3, ra-2, sa-7, Dha-9, ra-2


The above sloka has actually 3 meanings.

  1. In favor of Lord Shiva
  2. In favor of Lord Krishna
  3. The value of PI upto 32 decimals.

Yoga & Kundalini Energy

We know that Om, "ॐ" is the sound of the cosmos. We can regenerate this sound within ourself and resonate along with the universe. The energy created will be tremondous.

The "Chakras" are the seven main energy centers in the body. They are located along the Spine, starting at the base and running upwards to the crown of the head. The Chakras are described as "whirling disks of light", and each Chakra radiates a specific color and energy. As each Chakra relates to specific spiritual, emotional, psychological and physical issues, the conscious awareness and the balancing of these energy centers lead to well-being.

  1. Muladhara: coccyx, base of the spine, at the perineum
  2. Svadhistana: sacral plexus, genital area
  3. Manipura: solar plexus, navel center
  4. Anahata: cardiac plexus, heart center
  5. Visshuddha: thoracic plexus, throat center
  6. Ajna: pituitary center, eyebrow center
  7. Sahasrara: crown of the head

Kundalini is an enormous reserve of untapped potential within each of us. At the base of the spine (@Muladhara Chakra), subtler than the physical body, lies the Kundalini energy, or spiritual energy, in a latent form.

Yogic Power or perfection in Yoga is achieved by arousing this Supreme Force. After awakening this Kundalini Shakti, you have to take this Supreme Power upward, through the Sushumna Nadi by Yogic method, from Muladhara Chakra to the crown of the head (Sahasrara). Then you will get various Yogic powers. The six stages in Kundalini Awakening are:

  1. Prana usually flow in Ida or Pingala
  2. Prana is made to flow (causing balance) in Ida and Pingala
  3. Prana is made to flow in Sushumna
  4. Kundalini energy is awakened
  5. Kundalini is lead upwards
  6. Kundalini rises to Sahasrara

The ability to balance Ida and Pingala, and cause Prana to flow in Sushumna is the most essential preparation for Meditation and Kundalini Awakening. After the upward journey of Kundalini, coursing through the Sushumna channel and the chakras along the way, it is finally brought to the crown chakra, Sahasrara.

This union is the Realization of the Absolute, and is the meaning of Yoga. An accomplished, Purnayogi in the path of Kundalini Yoga is in possession of eight major Siddhis, viz., Anima, Mahima, Laghima, Garima, Prapti, Prakamya, Vasitvam and Ishitvam.

1. Anima: The Yogi can become as minute as he pleases.

2. Mahima: This is the opposite of Anima. He can become as big as he likes. He can make his body assume a very large size. He can fill up the whole universe. He can assume a Virat Svarupa.

3. Laghima: He can make his body as light as cotton or feather. Vayustambhanam is done through this Siddhi. In Jalastambhanam also the power is exercised to a very small degree. The body is rendered light by Plavini Pranayama. The Yogi produces a diminution of his specific gravity by swallowing large draughts of air. The Yogi travels in the sky with the help of this Siddhi. He can travel thousands of miles in a minute.

4. Garima: This is the opposite of Laghima. In this the Yogi acquires an increase of specific gravity. He can make the body as heavy as a mountain by swallowing draughts of air.

5. Prapti: The Yogi standing on the earth can touch the highest things. He can touch the sun or the moon or the sky. Through this Siddhi the Yogi attains his desired objects and supernatural powers. He acquires the power of predicting future events, the power of clairvoyance, clairaudience, telepathy, thought-reading, etc. He can understand the languages of the beasts and birds. He can understand unknown languages also. He can cure all diseases.

6. Prakamya: He can dive into the water and can come out at any time he likes. The late Trilinga Swami of Benares used to live for six months underneath the Ganges. It is the process by which a Yogi makes himself invisible sometimes. By some writers it is defined to be the power of entering body of another (Parakaya Pravesh). Sri Sankara entered the body of Raja Amaruka of Benares. Tirumular in Southern India entered the body of a shepherd. Raja Vikramaditya also did this. It is also the power of keeping a youth-like appearance for any length of time. Raja Yayati had this power.

7. Vashitvam: This is the power of taming wild animals and bringing them under control. It is the power of mesmerising persons by the exercise of will and of making them obedient to one's own wishes and orders. It is the restraint of passions and emotions. It is the power to bring men, women and the elements under subjection.

8. Ishitvam: It is the attainment of divine power. The Yogi becomes the Lord of the universe. The Yogi who has this power can restore life to the dead. Kabir, Tulsidas, Akalkot Swami and others had this power of bringing back life to the dead.

Minor Siddhis

The Yogi acquires the following minor Siddhis also:

  1. Freedom from hunger and thirst.
  2. Freedom from the effects of heat and cold.
  3. Freedom from Raga-Dvesha.
  4. Doora Darshan, clairvoyance or Dooradrishti.
  5. Doora Sravan, clairaudience or Doora Sruti and Doora Pravachana.
  6. Mano-Jaya, control of mind.
  7. Kama Rupa: The Yogi can take any form he likes.
  8. Parakaya Pravesha: He can enter into another body, can animate a dead body and enter into it by transferring his soul.
  9. Iccha-Mrityu: Death at his will.
  10. Devanam Saha Kreeda and Darshana: Playing with the gods after seeing them.
  11. Yatha Sankalpa: Can get whatever he likes.
  12. Trikala-Jnana: Knowledge of past, present and future.
  13. Advandva: Beyond the pairs of opposites.
  14. Vak-Siddhi: Whatever the Yogi predicts will come to pass by the practice of Satya, Prophecy.
  15. The Yogi can turn base metal into gold.
  16. Kaya-Vyuha: Taking as many bodies as the Yogi likes to exhaust all his Karmas in one life.
  17. Darduri-Siddhi: The jumping power of a frog.
  18. Patala-Siddhi: Yogi becomes Lord of desire, destroys sorrows and diseases.
  19. He gets knowledge of his past life.
  20. He gets knowledge of the cluster of stars and planets.
  21. He gets the power of perceiving the Siddhas.
  22. He gets mastery of the elements (Bhuta Jaya), mastery of Prana (Prana Jaya).
  23. Kamachari: He can move to any place he likes.
  24. He gets omnipotence and omniscience.
  25. Vayu-Siddhi: The Yogi rises in the air and leaves the ground.
  26. He can point out the place where a hidden treasure lies.
"Kundalini awakening and raising has never been easier"

Yoga Nadis Nadis or channels are the Astral tubes made up of astral matter that carry psychic currents. Since they are made up of subtle matter, they are not visible to the naked physical eye. It is through these Nadis that the vital force or Pranic current flows in the body. These Yoga Nadis are not the ordinary nerves, arteries and veins. Our body is filled with innumerable Nadis. There are about 3,50,000 Nadis in the body.

Nadis play a vital role in Kunadalini Yoga. Kundalini, when awakened will pass through SUSHUMNA NADI and this is possible only when the Nadis are pure. Therefore the first step in Kundalini Yoga is the purification of Nadis. For this purpose, you have to do various Yogic Kriyas (practices) such as Dhauti, Bhasti, Neti, Tratak, Nauli, Kapalabhati, Pranayama etc.

All the Nadis (channels) spring up from the KANDA (It is like a shape of an egg and it is covered with membranes. This is just above the Muladhara Chakra). Out of the innumerable Nadis, Ayurveda mentions 72,000 different Nadis.

Tantra Yoga identifies 14 principal nadis:

  2. IDA
  6. KUHU
  8. PUSHA
  11. VARUNI

IDA (moon), PINGALA (sun) & SUSHUMNA are the most important of the fourteen Nadis and SUSHUMNA is the Chief Nadi. The other nadis are subordinate to Sushumna.


Passes through the spinal column, originating in the Muladhara Chakra and terminating in the Sahasrara Chakra, diving in an anterior and posterior branch before reaching the Ajna Chakra. The Sushumna generally remains dormant when the other Nadis flow strongly and is activated only when the breath comes through both nostrils simultaneously. It can also be activated through pranayama and Swar Yoga and operates automatically at dawn and dusk, calming down the system and making meditation easy.


The Ida Nadi starts and ends to the left of the Sushumna, but is also connected with the left testicle in males. It terminates in the left nostril, stimulating the right side of the brain. It is feminine in energy, carries pranic energy and is one of the most important mental nadis. As it nourishes and purifies the body and the mind, it is also called Ganga in Tantric scriptures. When Sushumna is not working, activating the Ida Nadi is the best way to facilitate meditation.


The Pingala Nadi starts and ends to the right of Sushumna. It is the carrier of solar, male energy, adding vitality, physical strength and efficiency. It is also purifying like Ida Nadi, but cleansing like fire. It is activated by the breath in the right nostril where it stimulates the left side of the brain. Bhedana pranayama is used to activate this nadi and is recommended for physical activities, debates and, indeed, duels.

Sanskrit Literature

Sanskrit literature can be classified under six orthodox heads and four secular heads. The six orthodox sections form the authoritative scriptures of the Hindus. The four secular sections embody the later developments in classical Sanskrit literature.

The six scriptures are: (i) Srutis, (ii) Smritis, (iii) Itihasas, (iv) Puranas, (v) Agamas and (vi) Darsanas.

The four secular writings are: (i) Subhashitas, (ii) Kavyas, (iii) Natakas and (iv) Alankaras.


The Srutis are called the Vedas, or the Amnaya. These are "Revealed Truths Without Beginning or End."

The Veda is the source of the other five sets of scriptures, even of the secular and the materialistic.


These are the ancient sacred law-codes of the Hindus dealing with the Sanatana-Varnasrama-Dharma

There are eighteen main Smritis or Dharma Sastras. The most important are those of Manu, Yajnavalkya and Parasara. The other fifteen are those of Vishnu, Daksha, Samvarta, Vyasa, Harita, Satatapa, Vasishtha, Yama, Apastamba, Gautama, Devala, Sankha-Likhita, Usana, Atri and Saunaka.

The laws of Manu are intended for the Satya Yuga, those of Yajnavalkya are for the Treta Yuga; those of Sankha and Likhita are for the Dvapara Yuga; and those of Parasara are for the Kali Yuga.


There are four books under this heading: The Valmiki-Ramayana, the Yogavasishtha, The Mahabharata and the Harivamsa.

The Ramayana is written in twenty-four thousand verses by Sri Valmiki ( studded with the letters of Gayatri mantra)

Yogavasishtha is a classical treatise on Yoga, containing the instructions of the Rishi Vashista to Lord Rama on meditation and spiritual life.

The Mahabharata is written in one hundred thousand verses by Sri Krishnadvaipayana Vyasa.

The Harivamsa is a celebrated poem of 16,374 verses (the adventures of the family of Krishna, being divided into three parts)


The Puranas are of the same class as the Itihasas. They have five characteristics (Pancha-Lakshana) viz., history, cosmology (with various symbolical illustrations of philosophical principles), secondary creation, genealogy of kings and of Manvantaras. All the Puranas belong to the class of Suhrit-Samhitas.

Vyasa is the compiler of the Puranas from age to age; and for this age, he is Krishnadvaipayana, the son of Parasara.

There are eighteen main Puranas and an equal number of subsidiary Puranas or Upa-Puranas.
The main Puranas are: Vishnu Purana, Naradiya Purana, Srimad Bhagavata Purana, Garuda (Suparna) Purana, Padma Purana, Varaha Purana, Brahma Purana, Brahmanda Purana, Brahma Vaivarta Purana, Markandeya Purana, Bhavishya Purana, Vamana Purana, Matsya Purana, Kurma Purana, Linga Purana, Siva Purana, Skanda Purana and Agni Purana. Of these, six are Sattvic Puranas and glorify Vishnu; six are Rajasic and glorify Brahma; six are Tamasic and they glorify Siva.

The eighteen Upa-Puranas are: Sanatkumara, Narasimha, Brihannaradiya, Sivarahasya, Durvasa, Kapila, Vamana, Bhargava, Varuna, Kalika, Samba, Nandi, Surya, Parasara, Vasishtha, Devi-Bhagavata, Ganesa and Hamsa.


The Agamas are theological treatises and practical manuals of divine worship. The Agamas include the Tantras, Mantras and Yantras. All the Agamas treat of (i) Jnana or Knowledge, (ii) Yoga or Concentration, (iii) Kriya or Esoteric Ritual and (iv) Charya or Exoteric Worship.

The Agamas are divided into three sections: The Vaishnava, the Saiva and the Sakta.
The Vaishnava Agamas are of four kinds: the Vaikhanasa, Pancharatra, Pratishthasara and Vijnanalalita.

The Saivas recognise twenty-eight Agamas, of which the chief is Kamika

The Sakta: There are seventy-seven Agamas. Mahanirvana, Kularnava, Kulasara, Prapanchasara, Tantraraja, Rudra-Yamala, Brahma-Yamala, Vishnu-Yamala and Todala Tantra are the important works.


Darsanas are schools of philosophy based on the Vedas. The Shad-Darsanas (the six schools of philosophy) or the Shat-Sastras are:
  1. the NYAYA, founded by Gautama Rishi,
  2. the VAISESHIKA by Kanada Rishi,
  3. the SANKHYA by Kapila Muni,
  4. the YOGA by Patanjali Maharshi,
  5. the PURVA MIMAMSA by Jaimini, and
  6. the UTTARA MIMAMSA or VEDANTA by Badarayana or Vyasa.

Each set of Sutras has got its Bhashya, Vritti, Varttika, Vyakhyana or Tika and Tippani.

A Sutra or an aphorism is a short formula with the least possible number of letters, without any ambiguity or doubtful assertion, containing the very essence, embracing all meanings, without any stop or obstruction and absolutely faultless in nature.

A Bhashya is an elaborate exposition, a commentary on the Sutras, with word by word meaning of the aphoristic precepts, their running translation, together with the individual views of the commentator or the Bhashyakara.

A Vritti is a short gloss explaining the aphorisms in a more elaborate way, but not as extensively as a Bhashya.

A Varttika is a work where a critical study is made of that which is said and left unsaid or imperfectly said in a Bhashya, and the ways of making it perfect by supplying the omissions therein, are given.

A Vyakhyana or Tika is a running explanation in an easier language of what is said in the original, with little elucidations here and there.

Tippani is just like a Vritti, but is less orthodox than the Vritti. It is an explanation of difficult words or phrases occurring in the original.


The Subhashitas are wise sayings, instructions and stories, either in poetry or in prose.

e.g., Subhashita-Ratna-Bhandagara, Katha-Sarit-Sagara, Brihat-Katha-Manjari, Panchatantra, Hitopadesa, ...etc


These are highly scholarly compositions in poetry, prose or both.

e.g., Raghuvamsa, Kumarasambhava, Kiratarjuniya, Sisupalavadha, Naishadha, Kadambari, Harshacharita, Champu-Ramayana, Champu-Bharata, ...etc


These are marvellously scholastic dramas embodying the Rasas of Sringara, Vira, Karuna, Adbhuta, Hasya, Bhayanaka, Bibhatsa and Raudra. ( It is told that none can write on the ninth Rasa, viz., Santi. It is attainable only on final Liberation.)

e.g., Sakuntala, Uttara-Rama-Charita, Mudrarakshasa, ...etc


These are grand rhetorical texts, treating of the science of perfection and beauty of ornamental language and of effective composition with elegance and force, both in poetry and in prose. These are the fundamentals of Sanskrit Sahitya, even superior to the Kavyas and the Natakas.

e.g., Kavyaprakasa, Rasagangadhara, ...etc